With models offered in a variety of vehicle types, from compact cars and sedans to sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and pickup trucks, the electric vehicle market is expanding quickly. Some electric vehicles (EVs) run exclusively on batteries, while others are hybrid models that combine an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. An overview of EV kinds and charging infrastructure is provided in this section. It also highlights the measures taken by States and communities to set up public charging stations in anticipation of an increase in the number of EVs. There are four different kinds of electric vehicles on the market today:
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), often known as “all-electric vehicles), only use energy and require an external power source to recharge. One or more electric motors that are powered by rechargeable battery packs are used to propel them. A majority of new cars entering the market today have an all-electric range of 200 to 300 miles or more, and nearly all BEVs can travel at least 100 miles on a single charge.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
In order to increase driving range, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) incorporate a smaller internal combustion engine that can recharge the battery or, in some models, directly power the wheels. PHEVs also use batteries to power an electric motor and can be recharged from an external power source.
PHEVs can normally go between 20 and 50 miles in “EV mode” using only the battery, depending on the model. As the majority of their excursions are brief, this greatly lowers their gasoline consumption and emissions while driving normally.
When their batteries are completely charged, PHEVs utilize 14 to 47% less fuel than standard cars. PHEVs can function only on gasoline when there is no access to electricity.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
For increased efficiency, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine an internal combustion engine with electric motors that are driven by a battery pack. An HEV’s batteries cannot be recharged by an outside source.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) turn hydrogen into electricity through a very effective electrochemical process, which then drives an electric motor. FCEVs on the market today are not made to have their batteries recharged by an outside source. Instead, they run on compressed hydrogen gas that is kept in a tank attached to the car.
Since both BEVs and PHEVs may be recharged from outside sources and are capable of operating with no tailpipe emissions, this toolkit utilizes the term “EV” to refer to both types of vehicles. Unless otherwise stated, this toolkit primarily addresses EVs; it does not cover HEVs or FCEVs.
Electric Vehicle Charging Speeds
Electric vehicles can be charged utilizing three charging speeds.
The slowest equipment, Level 1, charges using a standard 120-volt (120V) AC socket found in homes. A battery electric vehicle (BEV) can be fully charged using a level 1 charger in 40–50 hours, while a plug-in hybrid electric car (PHEV) can be fully charged in 5–6 hours.
Level 2 equipment is typically used for home, office, and public charging and offers charging through 240V (in residential applications) or 208V (in commercial applications) electrical service. BEVs can be fully charged using level 2 chargers in 4–10 hours, while PHEVs can be fully charged in 1–2 hours.
Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC)
Direct current fast charging (DCFC) technology, which has the highest speed, permits quick charging at stations situated along corridors with high traffic volumes. A BEV may be charged to 80% with DCFC equipment in only 20 to 1 hour. The majority of PHEVs currently sold do not function with fast chargers.
Overview of EV Chargers
The typical power output, charging duration, and locations for PHEVs and BEVs for the various charger types are listed in the table below. (Note: On longer trips, it can be faster to charge partially (20–60%) and travel less between charges rather than fully recharge and go more between charges because the last 10% of charging an EV battery can take as long as the first 90%.) See the Utilities Planning section of the toolkit for further details on the power needs of various chargers.
Charge ports vary amongst automobiles. In terms of DCFC, vehicles made in North America and Europe often have the Combined Charging System (CCS) connector, which is based on an open international standard, whereas those made in Japan typically use the CHArge de Move (CHAdeMO) connector. Non-Tesla vehicles need adapters at these stations, however Tesla vehicles have a special connector that is compatible with all charging speeds, even those at Tesla’s “Supercharger” DCFC stations.
2Based on an 8 kWh battery; rapid chargers are not compatible with the majority of plug-in hybrids.
3A 60 kWh battery is assumed.
to an 80% charge. As the battery gets nearer to being fully charged, the charging rate decreases to protect the battery. Hence, using direct current (DC) quick charging until the battery reaches 80% before continuing on their journey is more economical in terms of both time and money. The final 10% of an EV battery may be charged in about the same amount of time as the first 90%.
Possibilities for Collaboration in EV Infrastructure
In the majority of EV charging projects, partners play a crucial role in everything from providing technical expertise to organizing local stakeholders to hosting charging stations.
To learn more about the important partners listed below that can help rural entities with planning, funding, and installing electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), click on the related sections below:
Statewide and Multistate Partners
Key stakeholders can be identified, and state-wide and multistate partners, such as groups preparing for EV corridors, State environmental, energy, and transportation agencies, and multistate initiatives focusing on climate change and electric vehicles, can offer technical support or money. In order to develop their infrastructure, stakeholders can be found by tribes and tribal groups working on climate change and transportation, who can then offer technical aid or financial support.
Partners in Local and Regional Planning
Partners in local and regional planning include Clean Cities coalitions, which can assist rural entities in beginning an EVSE project, and transportation planning organizations, which can assist in coordinating EVSE projects with more comprehensive transportation planning initiatives and funding opportunities.
Electric utilities are a crucial planning partner for the infrastructure needed for EVs. They frequently function as active long-term partners, taking ownership of some or all aspects of EVSE installations in addition to offering technical guidance on connecting EVSE to the neighborhood electric grid.
In addition to owning, running, and maintaining charging stations, charging networks can offer technical knowledge regarding charger technology.
Site hosts, such as vacation spots, neighborhood shops, transportation hubs, and municipal and community sites, can take the lead on EVSE projects or serve as crucial partners for organizations that want to adopt EVSE but lack dedicated space.
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